Category: USSR
100th anniversary of the October Revolution: Speech by the GS of the KKE Dimitris Koutsoumbas
| October 17, 2017 | 9:19 pm | Communist Party Greece (KKE), USSR | No comments

Tuesday, October 17, 2017

100th anniversary of the October Revolution: Speech by the GS of the KKE Dimitris Koutsoumbas
Speech by the Secretary General of the CC of the KKE Dimitris Koutsoumbas at the internationalist event hosted by the KKE in Athens, in honor of the 100th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution / Source:
Dear comrades,
We honour here at the headquarters of the CC of the KKE the 100th anniversary of the October Revolution, a great epic of struggles and sacrifices for the construction of a new society, without the exploitation of man by man, which the peoples experienced and continue to experience under capitalism and also under the previous exploitative social systems.
This epic, which began victoriously in the country of the Soviets inspired the working class and the peoples all over the world.

“It was born” in the blood of the imperialist 1st World War.

From it emerged its own heroic figures:
– The heroic red guards, who protected Soviet Power in revolutionary Russia, during the imperialist intervention of 14 capitalist states.
– Millions of communists and leading workers, who defied the decisions of the courts, and even the guns of the bourgeois armies and waged tough battles.
The millions who crushed fascism, which emerged from the bowels of capitalisms and is the “flesh of its flesh”.
We salute the presence, here at the headquarters of the CC of the KKE, at today’s event, of the Communist and Workers’ parties that participate in the efforts of the “International Communist Review”.
Our party particularly appreciates the effort of the ICR, the joint effort of a number of parties that base themselves on Marxism-Leninism, defend the revolutionary principles and at the same time study and form a modern revolutionary strategy at a national and international level.
After the restoration of capitalism in the USSR and other socialist countries, it is very difficult even impossible to inspire, to play a leading role in the workers’-people’s movement, which is rising up, to have some results against the most reactionary offensive of capital since World War II, against the new cycle of imperialist interventions and wars, if we do not assimilate and use the assessments, experience and lessons from socialist construction in our strategy
There are new features in the general developments that must increase the level of demands in the international communist movement, in the international labour movement.
We live in a period when the old is dying and the new is struggling to be born.
Despite the global domination of capitalism and its apparently undeniable victory over the last 30 years after the counterrevolution, capitalism is permeated with very sharp contradictions and implacable antagonisms between various capitalist states, their military-political and economic-political alliances, antagonisms that have led to wars and realignments.
These contradictions are intrinsic to capitalism, especially in its monopoly stage, namely imperialism.
The phenomena of decay, parasitism, the varied destruction of forces of production are intensifying in this period.
These are consequences related mainly to the expansion of the gap between the productive potential of our era and the level of satisfaction of the contemporary social needs.
A new, more synchronized economic crisis is gestating, as well as the sharpening of the struggle for the control of markets, energy resources and the transport routes of oil and natural gas.
The basic contradiction between capital and labour is intensifying.
The trend of the absolute and relative destitution of the working class is being reinforced.
The percentage of the long-term, permanently unemployed is increasing.
The rate of exploitation of the working class is also increasing in the most developed capitalist economies.
All the social contradictions are intensifying.
The communist and workers’ parties that base themselves on scientific socialism must take initiatives, not just to coordinate the struggle, to promote some just worker’s demands all over the capitalist world, but also to form a unified revolutionary strategy against the strategy of capital.
Such efforts cannot be made by parties that have given up on the goal of the socialist revolution and worker’s power and have chosen the path of managing capitalism.
These efforts can only be made by communist parties that believe in the overthrow of the barbaric capitalist system and the construction of the new socialist-communist society.
Dear comrades,
Proletarian Internationalism was and remains a strong weapon in the hands of the communists and the working class, against the attempts of the bourgeois and opportunists to spread division amongst the workers.
No isolated specific feature, no existing or fabricated secondary contradiction, such as “North-South”, “Centre-Periphery”, “developed-under-developed countries”, “Golden Billion-rest of the world”and other such things, can eliminate the basic contradiction between capital and labour or the necessity for the working class to emancipate itself and achieve workers’ power.
Of course the communists, in forming our tactics, take into account the situation in each country, the course of the class struggle, various contradictions, but this cannot be at the expense of our strategy and the general laws for the overthrow of capitalism and the construction of the socialist-communist society.
In any case, tactics are integral component of strategy. They are the flexible element of strategy.
An issue that was borne out by the October Revolution is that 100 years ago, in a relatively backward country in relation to other advanced western countries, with many vestiges of previous social systems, capitalism had created the material preconditions for the construction of the new socialist society.
This socialist society provided enormous impetus to the development of the productive forces, overcoming backwardness and centuries old prejudices.
As today, the necessity and timeliness of socialism in even more intense, we cannot speak in a general and abstract way about some vision of socialism, without answering some fair questions in an objective way.
Why was socialist construction interrupted?
Was this development inevitable? Or was it due to specific factors and what were they?
At the same time, there needs to be an evaluation of the strategy of the International Communist Movement in the implacable international confrontation between the socialist and capitalist systems.
The counterrevolution and the current negative correlation of forces does not alter this fact, that a socialist revolution was carried out and socialism was constructed.
They do not change the character of our era, as an era of the transition from capitalism to socialism, as this emerges from the impasses of the capitalist mode of production itself, such as the crises, wars, unemployment, poverty and other torments for the peoples.
The October Revolution confirmed that for the working class to be able to fight for power it must establish its own social alliance with the poor farmers, oppressed urban strata.
It must conquer political power,create its own institutions of workers’ power, which based on the superiority of central scientific planning, on the solid terrain safeguarded by social ownership of the means production, the factories, the domestic energy resources, mineral wealth, land, infrastructure will develop the productive forces for the satisfaction of the contemporary needs of the people, rejecting once and for all economic categories such as capitalist profit.
At the same time, October highlighted the irreplaceable role of the revolutionary political vanguard, the communist party, which must demonstrate persistence, stability in terms of its revolutionary line and goal and at the same time adapt to the ups and downs of the class struggle so that the necessary measures are taken for the more decisive and effective confrontation against the forces of capital.
The necessity of proper preparation was apparent so that the working class and its party, the vanguard, can struggle in all conditions, in all forms of struggle, with endurance and self-sacrifice and to acquire a high level of ability so that they can make their mark on the developments in the revolutionary situation.
However, the role of the CP is distinguished not only as the leading force of the socialist revolution, but during the entire course of the class struggle in various forms in order for the new communist society to be shaped, strengthened and finally be victorious.
In all the historical phases, both in the period of preparation, as well as during the revolution itself, even more so during socialist construction, the need for the CP to maintain a strong front against opportunism was apparent.
Opportunism is a vehicle of bourgeois ideology and politics in the labour movement, and as we saw from the experience of the USSR after the 20th Congress of the CPSU and more openly during the period of Perestroika, it is transformed into a counterrevolutionary political force.
Dear comrades,
The 70-year existence of the USSR demonstrated that, despite the weaknesses and criticisms, socialism is a superior socio-economic system.
A system that can safeguard the right to work for all and solve major problems, such as free health-care, education, housing, transport, leisure and many other things that capitalism cannot and does not seek to solve, as they are spheres for the profitability and speculation of capital.
The historical contribution of the USSR to humanity was enormous.
Not only was it an inspiration for all the labour-people’s-revolutionary movements, but its work in every field of daily life, science, culture, sports, created a great legacy.
Demonstrating that the construction of a new society is possible.
That the barbarity of capitalism is not the end of history.
We well know that no previous socio-economic system (not even capitalism) was established in a single moment.
That the socialist society is the lowest phase of the communism and not an independent stage between capitalism and socialism.
It does not mean because we are active in the era of the transition from capitalism to socialism that there cannot be a capitalist restoration in one or more countries as a consequence, e.g., of the negative correlation of forces.
However, these general and correct assessments cannot lead us into concealing or excusing specific mistakes, mishaps, deficiencies and serious weaknesses that are related to the subjective factor, to the party above all, during the course of socialist construction, as well as in the international communist movement (ICM) in its confrontation against imperialism.
We are referring to specific political choices that altered, initially at a gradual rate, and later rapidly the class character and scientific basis of the political line of the CPs, and ended up as an opportunist deviation.
Unfortunately, they were not effectively resisted, even if there were such forces willing to do so. However, in the end, the course to capitalist restoration and the opportunist corrosion of the ICM became irreversible in this specific period.
We recognize that, especially after the 2nd World War and in the USSR in particular, new needs and unprecedented issues arose in terms of the course of socialist construction, as of course there was no previous experience or detailed and elaborated plan for construction.
This, however, does not excuse the responsibility of the subjective factor, of the CP, whose leading role is dialectically related to the guidance of workers power and the active mobilization of the masses.
And in these conditions of capitalism and in the conditions of socialism, the party must be more advanced than the consciousness of masses.
In socialism, however, there is the potential and therefore the responsibility to strengthen the socialist elements, practically reinforcing the value of communist relations of production, with socialist construction aiming to approach socialism, in the sense of consciously overcoming features of immaturity which socialism has as the lower imperfect phase of communism.
The womb that gave birth to mistaken views and choices that transformed into the socio-political and ideological force of the counterrevolution is to be found in the fact that while after the 2nd World War and the impressive reconstruction of the Soviet economy from the destruction from the war, while the development of the productive forces received new impetus, political decisions for the expansion of communist relations in agricultural production, decisions, in addition, which would have led to measures to develop and orient industry to resolve issues of mechanization and infrastructure, to form the suitable central planning.
During the period of the preparation and realization of the 19th Congress there was a significant and positive confrontation between various viewpoints. Some on the one side supported the role of commodity-money relations and the market in socialism and on the other side there were generally correct views that the law of value and commodity-money relations must not regulate socialist production and distribution, something that led to the realization of the fact that the Kolkoz and the circulation of products for private consumption in form of commodities had bean to become an obstacle to the development of the productive forces.
Unfortunately the above-initially correctly based-positions did not become the object of complete scientific theoretical work, consequently they could not effectively oppose the pro-market views that flourished not only in the ideological field but influenced the social base in the Kolkoz, amongst management cadres in agricultural production and industry.
Despite all this, the developments had not been determined once and for all. A turning point for the prevalence of the opportunist deviation in socialist construction was the 20th Congress of 1956, which in the name of dealing with existing problems, strengthened views about commodity-money relations, “market socialism”, which in turn led to the weakening of central planning, to the policy of the self-management of enterprises, to the forming of commodity-money relations horizontally between enterprises, which meant the dissolution of central planning.
Problems also emerged in the strategy of the ICM, which of course were rooted not only in the CPs that led worker’s power in the socialist countries, but also in the CPs of the capitalist countries, especially of Western Europe, which exerted in turn a general pressure in the ranks of the ICM.
The underestimation of capitalist reconstruction after the 2nd World War, in combination with the mistaken assessment that due to the creation of postwar socialist system there was the possibility of peaceful coexistence of the two systems played and important role as fertile ground for deviations.
In the assessment about the favourable change at the expense of imperialism, they calculated the role of the so-called non-aligned countries, i.e. of bourgeois states that had not entered imperialist alliances and unions, while in some cases, bourgeois movements that sought to upgrade their position in the global capitalist market or abolish vestiges of the colonial system in favour of the local bourgeoisie were considered to be anti-monopoly-antiimperialist movements.
The opportunist line of peaceful coexistence that existed with the view about a variety of forms of transition to socialism prevailed at the 20th Congress and were linked to the alleged possibilities for a parliamentary road to socialism under some some conditions, with the expansion of bourgeois democratic freedoms as the vehicle.
Pre-existing positions regarding the participation or support of CPs for governments on the terrain of capitalism, with the criterion of utilizing contradictions with the USA, with bourgeois forces that were separated into “national patriotic forces” and “anti-patriotic subservient forces”, an issue that demonstrated that the relations of dependence and inequality were not assessed as an element intrinsic to the capitalist system, but were identified with subordinate policies.
A serious factor that led to the reinforcement of deviations in opposition to the need for a revolutionary strategy was the fear of a nuclear war.
Of course, some of the above ideological and political views and choices did not arise only in the postwar period, but emerged in essence in the inter-war period in decisions and and congresses of the Communist International.
After the war, the character of the elaborated and flexible strategy of capitalism towards socialism was underestimated, which was based after a point on the understanding that a foreign military intervention was no longer realistic, but the encirclement in other ways, as well as the utilization of difficulties in socialist construction and the deviations in the ranks of the CPs and ICM.
Serious warnings, not just signs, were underestimated about the relationship between internal deviations and the tactic of imperialist encirclement, which began with a systematic psychological warfare, also networks aimed at undermining socialism, triggering counterrevolutionary developments, and even the role of the IMF, of economic and trade relations of various socialist states that bordered the USSR.
Phenomena related to inciting and supporting counterrevolutionary activity existed in the 1950s. Especially later in the 1970s and 1980s, while the victory and overthrow of Allende’s Popular Unity in Chile, the Carnations Revolution in Portugal, and the assessment of the capitalist economic crisis of 1973 were not thoroughly studied and taken on board.
Only the restoration of the revolutionary strategy of the ICM could deal with the imperialist interventionist policies and the opportunist deviations.
Through the decisive struggle against opportunism and reformism.
Through the restoration of the laws of socialist construction and the abolition of the strategy of stages and intermediate forms of power.
As the KKE, we fully understand that we have a long way in front of us in order to deepen our analysis of he factors that the led to the counterrevolution even further.
At the same time, we must constantly study the developments in the capitalist world, without shying away from sacrifices in the daily struggles to improve the position of the workers and deal with new attacks.
However, in this struggle we must acquire the maturity and readiness to respond in revolutionary conditions which cannot be predicted, when they will break out and in what form, in one or more countries.
We must help the preparation of the peoples so that they do not follow the banners of their bourgeois classes in the conditions of imperialist war, regardless of whether the one or the other state was the first to carry out the military attack or is on the defensive.
They must struggle to exit the war, if it cannot be prevented, fighting not only against the bourgeois class that is leading the war but also against the bourgeois class of their own country, because the bourgeoisie does not wish to and cannot guarantee peace and the protection of the homeland of the worker, the employee, the poor popular strata.
The revolutionary enthusiasm, the appetite for sacrifice, the communist selflessness and internationalist solidarity, are not just big talk and slogans for us.
They are based on the indivisible unity of theory and practice.
On the historical experience of the ICM and our party.
On the contribution of socialist construction.
On the position at the end of our Party programme:
The KKE has traveled a long way and has a long way to go because “the cause of the proletariat, communism, is the most universally human, the deepest, the broadest
The 100th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution was honored in Athens (+Video)

Monday, October 16, 2017

The 100th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution was honored in Athens (+Video)

“Long live the October Socialist Revolution! Long live Marxism-Leninism and Proletarian Internationalism! Our future isn’t capitalism; it is the new world, socialism!”.

Under these slogans and with the presense of representatives of Communist Parties from various countries, the Central Committee of the KKE honored the 100th anniversary of the October Revolution. The event, which took place at the KKE’s headquarters in Perissos, Athens, consists part of the celebrations organised by the CC of the KKE for the centennial of the 1917 October Revolution. 
The major speech was delivered by the Secretary General of the CC of the KKE Dimitris Koutsoumbas, while greeting messages were delivered by representatives from other Communist Parties, incuding the Communist Party of Turkey, the Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain (PCPE), the Communist Party, Italy; the New Communist Party of Yugoslavia, the South African Communist Party, the Hungarian Workers Party, the Socialist Movement of Kazakhstan, the Socialist Party of Latvia and the Russian Communist Workers Party. 
The event included an exhibition of Soviet banners, as well as Vladimir Lenin’s post-mortem mask made by the prominent Soviet sculptor-monumentalist Sergey Merkurov
Below, you can see the whole video of the internationalist event, as it was published by 902 portal.
Soviet Youth as You’ve Never Seen Before
| October 17, 2017 | 8:42 pm | USSR, Youth | No comments

Soviet Youth as You’ve Never Seen Before

  • Soviet Youth as You've Never Seen Before
  • Soviet Youth as You've Never Seen Before
  • Soviet Youth as You've Never Seen Before
  • Soviet Youth as You've Never Seen Before
  • Soviet Youth as You've Never Seen Before
  • Soviet Youth as You've Never Seen Before
  • Soviet Youth as You've Never Seen Before
  • Soviet Youth as You've Never Seen Before
  • Soviet Youth as You've Never Seen Before
  • Soviet Youth as You've Never Seen Before
  • Soviet Youth as You've Never Seen Before
  • Soviet Youth as You've Never Seen Before
  • Soviet Youth as You've Never Seen Before
  • Soviet Youth as You've Never Seen Before
  • Soviet Youth as You've Never Seen Before
  • Soviet Youth as You've Never Seen Before
  • Soviet Youth as You've Never Seen Before
  • Soviet Youth as You've Never Seen Before
  • Soviet Youth as You've Never Seen Before
  • Soviet Youth as You've Never Seen Before
  • Soviet Youth as You've Never Seen Before
© Sputnik/ Yuriy Kuydin
Members of an amateur film studio of the Sokolovsko-Sarbai mining and processing plant. The Kustanai region, the Kazakh SSR, currently Kazakhstan.

Take a look at never-before-seen pictures of Soviet youth in Sputnik’s gallery.

Despite living in a communist country, Soviet young people were enjoying the best time of their lives, which seems to be much more exciting than contemporary times. They had no gadgets or fidget spinners, but they traveled, practiced sports and partied hard at rock concerts. It seems that the youth of the XX century was legendary.

Int’l Conference Calls on Polish President to Stop Desecration of USSR Memorials
| October 12, 2017 | 8:24 pm | Poland, USSR | No comments

Int’l Conference Calls on Polish President to Stop Desecration of USSR Memorials

Flowers and candles rest on a memorial dedicated to the Katyn victims, to mark the 75th anniversary of the Soviet invasion of Poland at the start of WWII, in Katowice, Poland on September 17, 2014

Int’l Conference Calls on Polish President to Stop Desecration of USSR Memorials


Get short URL
0 18013

The participants of the international conference expressed confidence that the destruction of memorials dedicated to Soviet soldiers was illegal.

WARSAW (Sputnik) – The participants of the international conference dedicated to issues related to the situation with Soviet memorials in Eastern Europe on Thursday called on Polish President Andrzej Duda to put an end to the desecration of memorials in the country.

“We, the participants of the conference address you and the Polish government against the backdrop of adoption of the law [allowing the destruction of Soviet-era monuments] by you and the country’s parliament… We call on you with a request to put an end to the desecration of the memorials. Our common history would not change if the monuments and the memorials are destroyed. We are absolutely sure that everything would resume its natural course,” the statement adopted by the participants of the conference “Honor their memory” said.

According to the statement, some of the decisions of the Polish authorities encourage acts of vandalism.In July, Polish President Andrzej Duda approved a bill regulating the demolition of almost 500 Soviet-era monuments throughout the country, as well as the renaming of objects associated with the Communist era.

A number of memorials to Soviet soldiers who fell while fighting the Nazis in Poland during World War II have been desecrated in the country in recent years.

‘Return to sanity’: Gorbachev calls for US-Russia summit amid fears of nuclear treaty collapse Published time: 12 Oct, 2017 12:52
| October 12, 2017 | 8:21 pm | Analysis, Russia, struggle against nuclear war, USSR | No comments

‘Return to sanity’: Gorbachev calls for US-Russia summit amid fears of nuclear treaty collapse

'Return to sanity': Gorbachev calls for US-Russia summit amid fears of nuclear treaty collapse
Mikhail Gorbachev has warned that the treaty signed between the US and the Soviet Union on the elimination of nuclear and conventional missiles is “in jeopardy,” stressing that scrapping the 1987 deal could end in “disastrous” consequences.

“This December will mark the 30th anniversary of the signing of the treaty between the Soviet Union and United States on the elimination of intermediate- and shorter-range missiles…” the former Soviet leader wrote in an opinion piece for The Washington Post, referring to the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty.

He went on to note the merits of the deal, citing the fact that Russia and the US reported in 2015 that 80 percent of the nuclear warheads accumulated during the Cold War had been decommissioned or destroyed.

However, Gorbachev – who led the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991 – said the agreement is now “in jeopardy.”

“It has proved to be the most vulnerable link in the system of limiting and reducing weapons of mass destruction. There have been calls on both sides for scrapping the agreement,” he wrote.

Gorbachev stated that both Russia and the US have “raised issues of compliance, accusing the other of violating or circumventing the Treaty’s key provisions…”

“Relations between the two nations are in a severe crisis,” he said, noting the importance of establishing “a dialogue based on mutual respect.”

The former Soviet leader said that it is up to US President Donald Trump and his Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin to “take action,” and called on both countries to hold a summit to focus on “the problems of reducing nuclear weapons and strengthening strategic stability.” 

Once again noting the importance of the INF Treaty, Gorbachev warned that scrapping the deal could result in a collapse of the “system of nuclear arms control,” which would lead to “disastrous” consequences.

Gorbachev referred to today’s “troubled world” and said it was “disturbing” that US-Russia relations have “become a serious source of tensions and a hostage to domestic politics.” 

“It is time to return to sanity,” he wrote.

Signed at a 1987 summit meeting between Gorbachev and then-US President Ronald Reagan, the INF Treaty obligated both sides to eliminate their short- and intermediate-range missiles. It came into force on June 1, 1988.

The Treaty allowed for hundreds of nuclear-tipped missiles that were deployed in Europe to be scrapped amid the Cold War arms race.

The editorial comes just days after former US Defense Secretary William Perry warned that relations between Washington and Moscow have entered a “new Cold War,” and that current conditions could lead to global conflict.

1990: Pentagon Believed Superhero Soviets Could Shoot Lightning From Their Hands
| October 11, 2017 | 8:26 pm | USSR | No comments

1990: Pentagon Believed Superhero Soviets Could Shoot Lightning From Their Hands


1990: Pentagon Believed Superhero Soviets Could Shoot Lightning From Their Hands

Military & Intelligence

Get short URL

In the twilight years of the Soviet Union, Pentagon staff were convinced Russian scientists had mastered “superhuman” capabilities, that allowed subjects to shoot lightning from their hands.

Recently declassified documents relating to the US military’s StarGate project show Pentagon officials believed Soviet spies were able to manifest “ball lightning” by using the brain as a “superconductor” as late as 1990.

According to the documents, that year, a member of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) took interest in an article from the Chinese Journal of Somatic Science, itself a translation and summary of an article from the Soviet Science and Life magazine. The staffer then retranslated the Chinese translation for the Pentagon’s files, and incorporation into the StarGate program.

The article focused on “super-sensitives” — alleged masters of “super-perception” with “amazing abilities” that let them diagnose and treat illnesses “with results better than doctors” using only their hands. Super-sensitives would, according to the article, “feel the biological field with his hands” a few centimeters away from a patient. Moreover, their abilities were said to improve over time, to the point they had “super human abilities to cure ailments.”

The translation also describes a conversation with the “Deputy Director of the Soviet Academy of Sciences Radio Technology and Electronics Institute and director of the Radio Electronics Remote Sensing Methods Graduate Body Laboratory” — over the course of the chat, the director allegedly said he had discovered a plant “which can detect evidence of a crime” and transmit it to a super-sensitive.

“When a super-sensitive is concentrating his thoughts, he can cause his biological field to intensify six-fold. For example, 200 years ago all of Europe was astounded by the discoveries of [Franz] Mesmer. He was the primary super-sensitive of that time. He was able to receive a special kind of magnetism from the Earth and because of this he was able to cure peoples’ ailments,” the article reads.

Mesmer — from whose name the term “mesmerized” is derived — was a German physician with an interest in astronomy, who believed that there was a natural energetic transference that occurred between all animated and inanimate objects (which he dubbed animal magnetism). His hypothesis was resoundingly discredited in the 1800s and he was driven into exile.

Brain Conduction

The article asserts the brain can have act as a “superconductor,” which allowed super-sensitives to create “ball lightning” within a “channel” of energy, which they would “only have to concentrate.”

According to discussions with a lab researcher, physicist, and mathematician, the Soviets had, while researching control of body temperature, discovered the electrical power source “is on the skin.” So-called “super-sensitives” are even allegedly able to bring dead plants back to life.

“This is what that person does — he stretches out both hands to within 15 to 20 centimeters of shrivelled green leaves, and it looks like he is going to inject new life into dead cells. After several minutes, the leaves begin to shine, and have been restored to life,” the article continues.

In closing, the article’s author says anyone who doubts the veracity of these apparent superhuman capabilities are “stupid” and “arrogant.”

“What does quantum mechanics count for? Do you think all animals in the world are as simple as you? We have entered another realm. The skin is a very complex biological living machine. It is a primary object of our long-term research. The body’s electric power source results from friction generated [static] electricity,” the article concludes.

The StarGate project was established in 1978 at Fort Meade, Maryland, by the DUA and SRI International (a California contractor) to investigate the potential for psychic phenomena in military and domestic intelligence applications.

Ingo Douglas Swann was the man behind the project. He was a claimed psychic, artist, and author known for being the co-creator, along with Russell Targ and Harold Puthoff, of “remote viewing” —  a process in which viewers were allegedly able to view a location given nothing but its geographical coordinates.

In one such session detailed in the StarGate files, Swann reportedly transferred his consciousness to the planet Jupiter.

Happy 60th birthday, Sputnik! How USSR launched mankind’s first satellite (PHOTO, VIDEO)
| October 4, 2017 | 8:22 pm | Science, USSR | No comments

Happy 60th birthday, Sputnik! How USSR launched mankind’s first satellite (PHOTO, VIDEO)
Sixty years ago, an aluminum ball about the size of washing machine drum was attached to an R7 rocket at a launch site in Kazakhstan and shot into space. Known as Sputnik 1, the USSR-made craft entered low orbit in October 1957 and became the first artificial satellite in space.

The mission gave the Soviet Union bragging rights over the US, which would go on to launch its own first satellite, Explorer 1, four months later in January 1958.

To put the Sputnik 1 achievement in context, the satellite did not make use of a single electronic microchip – as the technology had yet to be invented.

Interestingly, the device is also regarded as acting as the starting whistle of the so-called “space race” that would result in the USSR sending the first man into space and the US following this up with a man on the moon by 1969.

So what else do we know about the 1957 spacecraft?

Space revolution

Sputnik 1 entered orbit and reached the maximum height of 947 kilometers on October 4, 1957.

It took 295 seconds for the craft to reach its destination, and it flew for a total of 92 days. The first Sputnik orbited the Earth 1,440 times and traveled over 60 million kilometers.

After around three weeks, an electrical fault made communication with the satellite impossible. The satellite was observed visually after that until its decay in January 1958.

Dimensions and kit

Around 58 centimeters in diameter and weighing 83 kilograms, Sputnik 1’s technical abilities were basic in comparison to today’s satellites.

It was equipped with four antennas by which the device could send radio signals from any direction toward Earth.

The electronics were housed inside its spherical shell. Its radio transmitted on 40.002 MHz.

The Soviet Union originally planned for the device to be much larger, with a weight of some 1,400 kilograms, yet as the development progressed more slowly than the scientists expected, the Soviet Union decided to go for a smaller model.

The development was kept top secret and researchers even worked in a separate room with soundproof walls and windows.

Rocky rocket liftoff

According to Roscosmos, Russia’s main space agency, problems with the thrust of the R7 rocket engine at the time threatened to scupper the project and the deadline for launch was at one point pushed back to 1958.

During the launch, a main engine of one of the Sputnik’s boosters reached its thrust level later than expected, which threatened the whole operation. Yet the engine then recovered power, so catastrophe was averted.

‘Father’ of Sputnik

Sputnik’s development was led by iconic Soviet rocket engineer Sergei Korolev, and constructed by rocket manufacturer OKB-1.

It was then launched at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.

READ MORE: Spacewalk 360: RT releases first-ever panoramic video of man in outer space (VIDEO)

Korolev was also involved in Sputnik 2, which put the dog Laika into orbit in November 1957.

Spooked US intelligence

The Sputnik 1 mission was largely met with suspicion by some people who thought it could be sending out coded messages or weapons.

The satellite program concerned US intelligence to the point that it was mentioned in a CIA report on the Soviet Union’s potential to build “an extensive guided missile program.”

The 1957 report predicted that, after Sputnik, the USSR could have another satellite “possessing substantial reconnaissance capabilities” by 1963-65.

However, US physicist Lloyd Berkner congratulated the Soviet achievement in a Time magazine report back then.

‘The Space Age is here’

Following the launch of Sputnik 1, the Soviet and then international media reported widely on the key step forward in space exploration.

Headlines, such as those reading, “The Space Age is here” praised the landmark event.

The word Sputnik, in fact, was not even translated into foreign languages and was adopted worldwide as it was.

The launch even inspired some earthlings to show their creative side following the launch, as they had “Sputnik-style” haircuts.

‘Travelling companion’

The term Sputnik roughly translates from Russian into English as “travelling companion.”

Russian news agencies VOR and RIA Novosti later adopted the name, rebranding themselves as Sputnik News.

“It [Sputnik] transmitted a simple signal, but became known to the whole world. Back then, it was hard to imagine how much of a contribution to the development of society that engineering and scientific breakthrough would bring,” Roscosmos chief Igor Komarov said.